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Difference Between NIDDM and IDDM

NIDDM vs. IDDM

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the pancreas produces inadequate amounts of insulin, or in which the body’s cells fail to act appropriately to insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body’s cells absorb glucose (sugar) so that it can be used as a source of energy. Insulin helps lower blood glucose levels. When the blood glucose increases, insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level. In patients with diabetes, the absence or inadequate production of insulin gives rise to hyperglycemia. Diabetes is considered to be a chronic medical condition; it simply means that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime. Diabetes mellitus may cause life-threatening complications if left untreated. Type 1 diabetes can result in diabetic coma, a state of unconsciousness caused by extremely high levels of glucose in the blood, or even death. In both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, complications may include blindness, kidney failure, and heart disease.

Diabetes mellitus is classified into two different types. In Type 1 diabetes, previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM for short) and juvenile-onset diabetes, the body may either produce insulin in very small amounts or it may not produce insulin at all. While in Type 2 diabetes, formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM for short) and adult-onset diabetes, the body’s weak balance between insulin production and the ability of cells to use insulin goes awry. This may result from insulin resistance in which cells fail to use insulin properly often times combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.

Classic symptoms commonly appear suddenly in Type 1 usually in individuals below 20 years of age. These include polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger). Symptoms characteristic of Type 2 diabetes include those found in Type 1 diabetes as well as repeated infections or skin sores that heal slowly or not at all, generalized tiredness, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet. Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent.

Most cases of Type 1 occur during puberty—around age 10 to 12 in girls and age 12 to 14 in boys. In the United States, Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 per cent of all diabetes cases. On the other hand, the onset of Type 2 diabetes usually occurs after the age of 45 although the incidence of the disease in younger people is growing rapidly. Individuals with the disease may not immediately recognize that they are sick because symptoms develop slowly. Of the nearly 21 million people in the United States with diabetes, 90 to 95 per cent have Type 2 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is a disease in which the body produces too little insulin or no insulin at all. In most cases, Type 1 diabetes is considered to be an autoimmune disease, that is, a condition in which the body’s immune system goes awry and attacks the healthy tissues. In the case of Type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys beta cells. These beta cells are the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Most scientists believe that a combination of genetic and environmental factors may trigger the immune system to destroy these cells. Environmental factors, such as certain viruses, may also contribute to the development of the disease specifically in people who already have a genetic predisposition for the disease. Type 1 diabetes may also result from surgical removal of the pancreas. In contrast, a number of genes are involved in Type 2 diabetes also unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and environmental factors.

In addition, there is a strong relationship between obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Around 80 percent of diabetics with this form of the disease are significantly overweight while people having Type 1 diabetes are usually thin or have normal weight. In addition to causing a build-up of glucose in the blood, untreated Type 1 diabetes may affect the metabolism of fat. Since the body cannot convert glucose into energy, it starts to break down stored fat for fuel. This produces acidic compounds in the blood called ketone bodies which can interfere with cellular respiration, the energy-producing process in cells. There is no cure for Type 1 diabetes, and treatment includes insulin injection. Type 2 can be controlled by physical exercise, healthy loss of weight, and diet control. Insulin Injections may also be used.

SUMMARY:

1. Our body makes too little or no insulin in Type 1 diabetes (formerly Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and juvenile onset diabetes) while in Type 2 diabetes (formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and adult-onset diabetes) your body can’t use the insulin it makes.

2. Type 1 diabetes is common in children while Type 2 is common in adults.

3. Type 1 is treated by insulin while Type 2 can be controlled with a healthy lifestyle or maybe insulin in some cases.

4. People who have Type 1 diabetes are usually thin or have normal weight while people having
Type 2 diabetes are usually overweight.

5. Onset of symptoms in Type 1 is rapid while slow in Type 2.

6. Affecting factors in Type 1 include: genetics, environmental, and auto-immune factors while
Type 2 includes: genetics, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and environmental.

7. Type 1 can result to ketoacidosis while Type 2 cannot result to hyperosmolar non-ketoacidosis.


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