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Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Mellitus vs Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes mellitus, which is commonly known as diabetes, is a condition in which the person suffering from it has high blood sugar. This may be because the body does not produce enough insulin or the cells do not respond to it. There are three different types of diabetes which are: Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin, and the person needs insulin injections. In Type 2 diabetes, the body does not respond to insulin and may also not produce enough of it. Gestational diabetes occurs only in pregnant women whereby a woman who never had diabetes before has a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. On the other hand, diabetes insipidus is a condition which is rare and causes frequent urination and excessive thirst. Like diabetes mellitus, it has different types and each has a different cause. The type which is more common is called central diabetes insipidus which is caused by a deficiency of the anti-diuretic hormone. This is due to damage of the pituitary gland and is treated by desmopressin which prevents water excretion. The second commonest type is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus which is caused by the kidneys being insensitive to the anti-diuretic hormone due to drugs or kidney disease.

Diabetes mellitus is more common than diabetes insipidus. Both involve frequent urination and excessive thirst. Diabetes mellitus also results in vision changes due to prolonged high blood glucose which causes glucose absorption. People with this condition may also present with a sweet-smelling breath, vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain. Diabetes insipidus is diagnosed by blood tests, urine tests, and a water deprivation test.
Summary:

1.Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the person suffering from it has high blood sugar, and diabetes insipidus is a condition which is rare and causes frequent urination and excessive thirst which is due to insufficient production of the anti-diuretic hormone by the hypothalamus.
2.Both are characterized by frequent urination and excessive thirst, but in diabetes mellitus, urination is less frequent.
3.Diabetes mellitus is caused by the deficiency of insulin, and diabetes insipidus is caused by the deficiency of vasopressin secreted by the pituitary gland.
4.Diabetes insipidus is a kidney disorder whilst diabetes mellitus is a pancreatic disorder.
In diabetes mellitus, the urine is sweet and there is the presence of high blood sugar. In diabetes insipidus, none of these are present.
5.Both have different types which are different from each other.


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