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Difference Between Deduction and Induction

Deduction vs Induction

Logic is the study of the principles of reasoning and inference. It is applied in philosophy, ethics, psychology, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. It analyzes the forms that arguments take, whether they are valid or not, and whether they are true or false.

Arguments are one or more statements or premises from which a conclusion can be derived. They can be formal or informal, defeasible, transitional, or by analogy. The most common types are deduction or deductive and induction or inductive arguments.

Deduction is defined as the reasoning wherein the conclusion is considered as the logical result of the premise or argument, its truth or validity is based on the truth of its argument. Deduction is a method of gaining knowledge and may be valid or invalid, sound or unsound. It is a kind of reasoning from the general to the specific wherein a conclusion necessarily follows the stated premises or statements. The premises in a deduction strongly support the conclusion. And if they are accepted as true, then it follows that the conclusion is also true. An example of deduction is the following set of statements:

All things created by God are good. I am created by God. I am good.

Induction, on the other hand, is defined as the reasoning wherein individual arguments or premises are made and evaluated to form certain conclusions or generalizations. The arguments support the conclusion but do not necessarily make it true. It is a kind of reasoning from the specific or individual to the general. Even if all the premises are true, the conclusion can be false. If the premises are strong enough and are true, then it follows that it is not probable that the conclusion can be false. An example of induction is this set of statements:

Humans are the most intelligent animal species. John is human. Therefore, John is intelligent.

In induction, premises may be confirmed or falsified by certain circumstances or evidence. It is based on experiences, on the patterns and instances by which things happen to make us form conclusions that apply to all. It concludes with probability and stresses that the conclusion probably comes from the truth of the premises.
In deduction, if the premises are true, then it follows that the conclusion is also true because the facts have already been stressed in the premises or statements. It concludes with necessity and is evaluated by the principle of contradiction. It is the basis of the scientific method and is the accepted form of reasoning.

Summary:

1.Deduction is the reasoning from the general to the specific or individual while induction is the reasoning from the specific or individual to the general.
2.In deduction, the conclusion is accepted as the logical result of the premises while in induction the conclusion is formed from individual premises which may support it but does not make it true.
3.Deduction concludes with necessity while induction concludes with probability.
4.Deduction is the basis of the scientific method while induction is not.


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1 Comment

  1. How would u classify the following sentance a DEDUCTION or an OPINION?

    Africans are strong, I am an African, therefore Im strong

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