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Difference Between Chlamydia and HPV

What is Chlamydia and HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)?

Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV (human papillomavirus) are commonly sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Chlamydia is caused by bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV is caused by virus human papillomavirus.

 

What is Chlamydia ?

Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterium that causes a commonly sexually transmitted infection. It also facilitates the transmission of HIV. 

Chlamydia trachomatis can affect both men and women and the infection occur in all age groups, though it mostly affects young women. It is not difficult to treat this infection once it is diagnosed. However, if left untreated, it can cause many serious health complications.

Chlamydia trachomatis can also cause infection of the rectum. Infection caused by Chlamydia usually causes no symptoms or signs. However, one experiences vaginal discharge or bleeding or rectal pain. It is also possible to acquire conjunctivitis (chlamydial eye infections) through contact with infected vaginal secretions.

 

What is HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)?

A human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common STI (sexually transmitted infection) and is believed to be a potential cause of invasive cervical cancer. 

HPV is usually not dangerous and mostly goes away by itself, but some categories can lead to genital warts or cancer. HPV usually spreads from mother to the baby by labor, pregnancy, or nursing or by having unprotected anal, vaginal, or oral sex.

HPV infection usually results in warts. The types of warts include Genital warts, common warts, plantar warts and flat warts. Some risk factors of HPV include; Number of sexual partners, age, weakened immune systems, damaged skin, personal contact

 

Difference between Chlamydia and HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

Description

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a common STI and can cause serious and permanent damage to the reproductive system. It usually spreads to the new born child during childbirth, potentially causing pneumonia or an eye infection. This infection is usually treatable and needs the use of antibiotics prescribed to both sexual partners.

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

It is a pathogenic infection that causes genital warts and can also result in cervical cancer. It is a common STI in the United States. The risk factors include more than one sexual partner, vaginal as well as anal intercourse, partners in sexual intercourse with a history of HPV.

Symptoms

Chlamydia

  1. Bleeding between periods in women
  2. Pain in lower abdomen, testicles, vagina
  3. Abnormal discharge from vagina and penis
  4. Pain during sex
  5. Pain while urinating
  6. Swelling in the vagina or around the anus
  7. Burning or itching in or around the vagina
  8. Discharge, pain or bleeding in the anus (bottom)
  9. Inflammation (redness) of the eye (known as conjunctivitis) caused by infected vaginal or semen fluid getting into your eyes.

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

  1. Itching
  2. Warts on the genitals or surrounding skin
  3. Common warts
  4. Plantar warts
  5. Flat warts
  6. Anogenital warts
  7. Anal dysplasia (lesions)
  8. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis
  9. Mouth papillomas
  10. Oropharyngeal cancer
  11. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (mouth)
  12. Verrucous cyst
  13. Laryngeal papillomatosis

Causes

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium and is usually transmitted through oral, vaginal, and anal sex.

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

HPV is caused when the virus enters the body, usually through abrasion, a cut, or a very tiny tear in the skin. The virus spreads and is transferred primarily by skin-to-skin contact.

Diagnosis

Chlamydia

  1. Urine test
  2. Swab test

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

  1. Visual checks for genital warts
  2. Cervical testing
  3. Mouth testing
  4. Testing men (The Qiagen/Digene kit)

Treatment

Chlamydia

Medications

Antibiotics

(Azithromycin and Doxycycline)

Doctors may give different antibiotics, such as erythromycin or amoxicillin, in case of women if they develop an allergy or are breastfeeding or are pregnant.

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

Medications

Topical anti-tumour medication

Treatment of skin cancer

Medical procedures

Loop electrosurgical excision procedure

Procedure uses electric current to get rid of abnormal tissues and cells from the vagina and cervix.

Freezing

Using cold extremity during medical treatment or surgery

Cervical conization

Also termed as cone biopsy, cone shaped sample of cervical tissue is removed from the cervix by surgery.

Surgery

Electrosurgery

Prevention

Chlamydia

Prevention methods include:

  • Condoms
  • Regular screening
  • Use of a dental dam during oral sex

HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

Prevention methods include:

  • Sexual abstinence
  • Condoms
  • Pap smear screening test for early detection of cancer of the cervix in females
  • Vaccination
  • Always go for a mutually monogamous relationship – or have sexual intercourse only with somebody who only has sexual intercourse with you.

 

Summary of Chlamydia vs. HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)

The points of difference between Chlamydia and HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) have been summarized as below:

 

Dr. Amita Fotedar -Dr

Research Consultant: PhD in Environmental Sciences at History of working in Elite Research Institutes like United Nations Development Program
Dr Amita Fotedar is an experienced Research Consultant with a demonstrated history of working in elite Research Institutes like United Nations Development Programme, Istanbul, Turkey, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India and International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Srilanka.
Skilled in Biological Sciences, Environmental Health, Natural Resources, Water Resource Management, and Renewable Energy, she has a PhD in Environmental Sciences from the University of Jammu, India. Apart from her PhD, she has a Post Graduate Diploma in International Studies from International Pacific University, New Zealand Campus, and has also been rewarded a certification in Climate Studies from Harvard University (EdX). She is a recipient of Academic Excellence Award from International Pacific University, New Zealand campus. At present she is pursuing MicroMasters in Sustainable Energy from The University of Queensland, Australia.
She is a Co- founder and Research Advisor for a New Zealand based Sustainability and Environmental Services Entity and is also a member of the Environmental Peacebuilding Association at SDG Academy, offering mentorship (a collaborative network of academic and research institutions under the auspices of UN Secretary-General). She has around 35 national and international publications to her credit.
Dr. Amita Fotedar -Dr

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References :


[0]O’Connell, C. M., & Ferone, M. E. (2016). Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections. Microbial cell, 3(9), 390.

[1]Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Throat_Warts_-_HPV.jpg

[2]Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SOA-Chlamydia-trachomatis-female.jpg

[3]Braaten, K. P., & Laufer, M. R. (2008). Human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV-related disease, and the HPV vaccine. Reviews in obstetrics and gynecology, 1(1), 2.

[4]Cox, J. T., & Palefsky, J. M. (2018). Human papillomavirus vaccinations. UpToDate. Waltham, MA. Accessed September, 15.

[5]Malhotra, M., Sood, S., Mukherjee, A., Muralidhar, S., & Bala, M. (2013). Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: an update. The Indian journal of medical research, 138(3), 303.

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