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Difference Between Typhoid Vaccine Oral and Injection

An oral typhoid vaccine is one that is in pill form while the injection is a shot that is given.

What is Typhoid vaccine oral?


This is an oral vaccination against the typhoid bacterium, Salmonella typhi. This is in the form of pills that you swallow. The vaccine is called Ty21a.

Dosing and format:

The vaccine is in the form of a capsule. Every second day you need to swallow one enteric-coated capsule one hour before eating. The vaccine in the oral form is live but is an attenuated (greatly weakened) form of the virus.


The oral vaccine is effective for up to 5 years, after which a booster shot is needed to regain protection.

Oral dose effects:

The vaccine is very safe, even for children who are 6 and older. There have been very rare reports of reactive arthritis. Other adverse effects, although uncommon, include nausea, vomiting, skin rash, and stomach pain.


Benefits of the oral form of the typhoid vaccine include the fact that it lasts much longer than the injection, so you don’t need a booster until after 5 years. Another benefit is that it is not painful since you just swallow a pill or capsule. 


It can be difficult for a child to swallow a capsule or pill, and the oral form cannot be given to children under 2 years of age.

What is Typhoid vaccine injection?


This is a vaccination against typhoid fever that is given as an injection, and it is called ViCPS .

Dosing and format:

The vaccine injection is made up of inactivated vaccine formed from the sugar coating of the bacterium. The injection only needs to be given once.


The injection does not last longer than 2 years. A booster shot is then needed after this time to get further protection against typhoid fever.

Injection effects:

Negative effects are rare or temporary. Pain at the injection site is common but, it does not last long usually. There may be a few generalized muscle pains as the vaccine begins to trigger the immune system. This is a normal response that should go away. It is uncommon, but other possible adverse effects with the injection include sore stomach, nausea, and vomiting.


Benefits of the injection form of the typhoid vaccine, is that it can be given to children at 2 years of age, while the oral form is limited to kids who are 6 and older. You also only need one injection every 2 years.


The disadvantage of an injection is it does hurt when administered, and the level of protection wanes after 2 years requiring a booster shot be given.

Difference between Typhoid vaccine oral and Injection


Typhoid vaccine oral is the vaccine that is in pill or capsule form. Typhoid vaccine injection is when the vaccine is given as an injection.

Minimum age 

The oral typhoid vaccine can be given at 6 years and older. The minimum age for the vaccine injection is 2 years.


The oral vaccine needs to be taken a week before travel. The injection is given two weeks before travel.


The vaccine in oral form includes taking 4 pills or capsules total: with one ingested on alternating days. The injection is only given once.


The oral typhoid vaccine only needs to be repeated in 5 years, while a booster for the injection is needed in 2 years.

Table comparing Typhoid vaccine oral and Injection

Summary of Typhoid vaccine oral Vs. Injection

  • Both the typhoid oral vaccine and the shot provide protection against S. typhi, which causes typhoid.
  • The typhoid oral vaccine has some benefits since the vaccine lasts longer, but the oral form may no longer be available depending on where you live.
  • The typhoid injection works and can be given to children as young as 2 years of age.


Which is better, typhoid shot or pills?

The pill form is better if you consider length of protection since it provides protection for a longer period of time, 5 years, instead of only 2 for the injection.

How effective is oral typhoid vaccine?

The vaccine is up to 80% effective, but varies from as low as 33% effective, against typhoid.

 Why did they stop making oral typhoid vaccine?

The decrease in travelers to areas where typhoid is prevalent is why vaccine manufacturers stopped making the oral vaccine. This was also related to the Covid pandemic, which restricted global travel.

Which typhoid vaccine is best?

They both have their advantages and disadvantages. In terms of protection, the oral form is better since it lasts much longer, but if you don’t like injections, the oral form would be best.

What are the side effects of typhoid vaccine oral?

Some side effects of taking the oral vaccine include nausea, vomiting, and belly pain.

Is it necessary to take injection in typhoid?

You only need to take a typhoid vaccine injection if you plan to travel to a country where typhoid is present.

How long is a typhoid shot good for?

The typhoid vaccine shot lasts for 2 years then you need to get another shot, a booster.

Is oral typhoid vaccine available?

The oral vaccine is no longer available in the United States.

Which countries require typhoid vaccine?

The CDC recommends taking the typhoid vaccine if you plan to go to any countries in southeast Asia such as Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Travel alerts are also posted on the CDC site, providing additional recommendations on where typhoid outbreaks are occurring.

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References :

[0]Bush, Larry M. and Maria T. Vazquez-Pertejo. “Typhoid fever”. Merckmanuals. Merck & Co., 2022, https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/gram-negative-bacilli/typhoid-fever

[1]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Typhoid and paratyphoid fever – Vaccination”. CDC, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/typhoid-fever/typhoid-vaccination.html#

[2]Date, Kashmira A., et al. "Typhoid fever vaccination strategies." Vaccine 33 (2015): C55-C61.

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