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Difference Between Sapphire and Ruby

Sapphire vs Ruby

People who know about gemstones know that a sapphire is blue in color and a ruby is red. This is the basic difference between sapphires and rubies. What most people do not know is that they are made of the same mineral called corundum.
Origin of the name
The name “ruby” has originated from the Latin word, “rubeus,” meaning red.
“Sapphire” has originated from a Latin word, “saphirus,” meaning blue.
Color
Ruby is a red precious stone; it is made of the mineral corundum. Corundum attributes its red color mainly to chromium. Rubies which are darker and have purple hues are less valuable than with a bright, red color. Sometimes they are heated to enhance their color. Heating changes the ruby permanently.
Sapphire is found in many colors. Sapphires found in a blue color are called blue sapphires while other colors are called fancy color sapphires. Corundum consists of aluminum oxide in pure form and traces of iron, titanium, and chromium. These minerals give sapphires the blue, pink, yellow, purple, or greenish colors. Corundum of all colors except for red and pinkish-orange are called sapphires. Pinkish-orange are called padparadscha. They are also found in grey, black and brown colors. They are white or colorless too but only after heating grey ones.
Hardness
A ruby and a sapphire both measure a nine on the hardness scale. They are both very hard and durable thus very popular with jewelry makers. The hardness of these can be beaten only by a diamond.
Value
All gemstones are valued for their color, cut, size, and clarity. High-quality rubies found in larger sizes are very rare and are valued more than diamonds at times. Rubies which are over two carats are very rare. Natural gemstones have imperfections in them; those with fewer imperfections are more valuable.
Artificial rubies have no imperfections and they are less expensive.
The most expensive sapphire is the padparadscha, the pinkish-orange sapphire. It is sometimes more valuable than the highest quality blue sapphires.
Sapphires are also artificially made and they cost less than the natural ones.
Mining
Rubies are found in Africa, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and U.S.A. in the Montana and South Carolina states.
Sapphires are mined in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, India, Madagascar, Australia, Afghanistan, Kenya, Pakistan, and also in the state of Montana, U.S.A.
Uses
A ruby is used to make jewelry. The first laser was made by a synthetic ruby.
A sapphire is also used to make jewelry. I-sapphire laser is used to change wavelengths from red to infrared, and wafers of sapphires are used to make watch faces. They are used to make windows for high-pressure chambers for spectroscopy. They are used as semiconductors and also in Xenon Arc Lamps.
Summary:

1.Sapphires and rubies are made of the same mineral named corundum. Chromium makes corundum red which is called “ruby.” Titanium, iron, aluminum oxide gives other colors to stones which are called sapphires.
2.A ruby is used for making lasers and jewelry. Sapphires have many uses. They are used in watches, as semiconductors, as lasers, and for making high-pressure windows.
3.Rubies are scarcer than sapphires.
4.Ruby is the birthstone of July; sapphire is the birthstone of September.


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