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Difference Between Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

What is Hypertrophy?

Hypertrophy is the increase in the volume of a given tissue or organ. It does not include an increase due to the development of adhesions or accumulation of fat, or due to the proliferation of cells. Hypertrophy is due only to the enlargement of the cells of the given tissue or organ. It occurs in permanent cells (non-dividing, such as skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, etc.).

The hypertrophy occurs as a result of increased demand. Depending on the result of the removal of this demand the hypertrophy is divided into:

  • physiological hypertrophy – the tissues return to their initial state after the demand is removed,
  • pathological hypertrophy – the tissues do not return to their initial state even after the demand is removed.

Depending on the reason that cause it the hypertrophy can be:

  • compensatory hypertrophy,
  • regenerative hypertrophy,
  • vicarious hypertrophy.

Compensatory hypertrophy occurs in response to increased load of a certain organ, e.g. when a person has a heart defect. In this condition either the valve through which the heart has to push the blood contracts or the valves are not completely closed. In both cases, more work is required from the heart. Muscle cells increase their volume and accumulate myofibrils. The heart can also increase in size in healthy people – for example, athletes. With large physical loads, the cardiovascular load increases, which results in compensatory hypertrophy.

Regenerative hypertrophy occurs when one part of an organ dies or is removed. The remaining cells of this organ increase their volume and start to work more intensively, to compensate the loss. This is possible, for example, in kidney and liver diseases.

Vicarious hypertrophy develops on loss of one of the two double organs. The remaining organ assumes the entire load and increases significantly. This happens for example after removing of the one kidney.

Difference Between Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

What is Hyperplasia?

The increase in the amount of a tissue, resulting from cell proliferation is called hyperplasia. It may lead to a significant enlargement of a certain organ.

The hyperplasia is a common response to a stimulus. The obtained cells are normal, but in increased numbers. The adaptive cell change in hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells. It occurs in labile or stable dividing cells.

Hyperplasia may be normal (physiological) or pathological response to a certain stimulus. Cells that undergo hyperplasia are controlled by growth hormones, and the proliferation stops when the stimulus is removed.

Hyperplastic growth may be result from different stimuli:

  • increased demand (e.g. for compensation of skin loss),
  • hormonal dysfunctions,
  • chronic inflammatory response,
  • disease,
  • compensation for damage.

An example for hyperplasia is the multiplication of milk-secreting glandular cells in the breasts, during pregnancy, thus preparing for breast feeding.

Other example for hyperplasia is the hemihyperplasia. This is a hyperplasia, affecting only the one side of the body and can be related to generation of limbs of different sizes.

After acute injury in the liver occurs compensatory hyperplasia. It results in the production of new cells, restoring the function of the liver.

The sebaceous hyperplasia is condition, in which small yellowish growths appear on the skin of the face.

Difference Between Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

1.      Definition of Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

Hypertrophy: The hypertrophy is an increase of the volume of a given tissue or organ due only to the enlargement of the cells.

Hyperplasia: The hyperplasia is an increase in the amount of a tissue, resulting from cell proliferation.

2.      Genesis of Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

Hypertrophy: The hypertrophy is mainly provoked by increased demand.

Hyperplasia: The hyperplasia is mainly provoked by excessive cell stimulation.

3.      Process of Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

Hypertrophy: Hypertrophy is a result from cell enlargement.

Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia is a result from cell proliferation.

4.      Mechanism of Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

Hypertrophy: Hypertrophy is a result of increased protein production in the cells.

Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia is a result of proliferation of mature cells, driven by growth factors.

5.      Affected cells of Hypertrophy and Hyperplasia

Hypertrophy: Hypertrophy occurs in permanent cells (non-dividing, such as skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, etc.).

Hyperplasia: Hyperplasia occurs in labile or stable dividing cells. 

Hypertrophy                          versus                                Hyperplasia
The increase of the volume of a given tissue or organ due only to the enlargement of the cells. The increase in the amount of a tissue, resulting from cell proliferation.
Mainly provoked by increased demand. Mainly provoked by excessive cell stimulation.
Cell enlargement. Cell proliferation.
Result of increased protein production in the cells. Result of proliferation of mature cells, driven by growth factors.
Occurs in permanent cells (non-dividing, such as skeletal or cardiac muscle). Occurs in labile or stable dividing cells.

Summary:

  • Hypertrophy is the increase of the volume of a given tissue or organ due only to the enlargement of the cells.
  • Hyperplasia is the increase in the amount of a tissue, resulting from cell proliferation.
  • Hypertrophy is mainly provoked by increased demand, while the hyperplasia is mainly provoked by excessive cell stimulation.
  • Hypertrophy is a result from cell enlargement, while hyperplasia is a result from cell proliferation.
  • Hypertrophy is a result of increased protein production in the cells. Hyperplasia is a result of proliferation of mature cells, driven by growth factors.
  • Hypertrophy occurs in permanent cells (non-dividing, such as skeletal or cardiac muscle), while hyperplasia occurs in labile or stable dividing cells.

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  1. Please mail biological difference

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References :


[0]Copstead-Kirkhorn, L. and J. Banasik. Pathophysiology. 5th Edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 2012. Print.

[1]Kemp, W., D. Burns, T. Brown. Pathology: The Big Picture. China: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2008. Print.

[2]Young, B., G. O'Dowd,W. Stewart. Wheater's Basic Pathology: A Text, Atlas and Review of Histopathology. China: Elsevier. 2005. Print.

[3]"Image Credit: https://www.intechopen.com/books/insulin-resistance/adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance"

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