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Difference Between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

prokaryotesThe size of prokaryotic cells is typically 0.2-2.0 micrometer in diameter while eukaryotic cell is 10-100 micrometer in diameter.

Eukaryotes are called to have ‘true nucleus’ because it contains membrane-bound nuclei and consists of other organelles such as lysosomes, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and chloroplasts, while prokaryotes does not have nuclear membrane or other membrane enclosed organelles.

In prokaryotes, flagellum is made of two protein building blocks; and cell wall is chemically complex and made of peptidoglycan (a single large polymer of amino acids and sugar),  while eukaryotes’ flagellum is more complex with multiple microtubules and when cell walls are present they are chemically simple.

In prokaryotes, the cell division occurs via binary fission and no meiosis takes place but only transfer of DNA fragments occurs via conjugation. Cell division in eukaryotes occurs through mitosis and sexual reproduction occurs through meiosis.

eukaryotesIn eukaryotes, plasma membrane consists of sterols and carbohydrates. Cytoplasm consists of cytoskeletons and cytoplasmic streaming is present. Ribosomes are larger (80S) and smaller (70S) in size, and chromosomes are multiple and linearly arranged with histones. The DNA of eukaryotes is much more complex than the DNA of prokaryotes.

In prokaryotes, plasma membrane does not contain carbohydrates or sterols. Cytoplasm does not have cytosketeton or cytoplasmic streaming. Ribosomes are smaller (70S) in size and present with single circular chromosome which does not consist histones.

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