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Difference Between CHF and Kidney Failure

What is CHF?

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a disease of the cardiovascular system, in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic needs of the tissues, due to a disorder of its systolic and/or diastolic functions. 

CHF is characterized by:

  • Decrease in the amount of blood that the left ventricle pushes to the aorta for one minute;
  • Development of pulmonary hypertension;
  • Development of tissue hypoperfusion (decrease in blood volume in tissues).

Тhe types of CHF are:

  • Left-sided CHF:
    • Systolic heart failure -the left ventricle fails to contract normally and the heart can’t pump properly.
    • Diastolic heart failure – the muscles in the left ventricle become stiff, so the heart can’t fill with blood properly between beats. 
  • Right-sided CHF – due to right ventricle’s difficulty pumping the blood to the lungs, it backs up in the blood vessels. This causes fluid retention in the abdomen, lower extremities, etc.

The left- and right-sided CHF can occur simultaneously. 

In case of CHF, pulmonary edema and cardiac asthma are observed. In CHF, the pressure in the pulmonary venous system increases. Pulmonary capillary pressure also increases and when it exceeds a certain limit occurs a leakage of fluids and proteins in the interstitial lung space – cardiac asthma. Later, fluids and proteins enter the alveoli and develop a pulmonary edema. 

The symptoms of CHF include:

  • Nighttime shortness of breath;
  • Superficial and rapid breathing;
  • Dry irritating cough and pink sputum;
  • Sweating;
  • Pale and cold skin;
  • Palpitations;
  • Cyanosis of the lips;
  • Anxiety.

The diagnosis of CHF is based on the medical history and clinical symptoms of the patient. Physical examination includes lung and heart auscultation. The instrumental examinations include: 

  • Electrocardiography; 
  • Radiography of the lungs; 
  • Echocardiography;
  • Blood-gas analysis.

Treatment for CHF aims to improve the myocardial contractility and thus to increase the minute heart rate. The main medications used are nitrates, ACE inhibitors, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, etc.

 

What is Kidney Failure?

Kidney failure is a condition where the kidneys have lost the ability to filter waste products from the blood. It is the last stage of chronic kidney disease. 

Kidney failure can be caused by:

  • Heart diseases;
  • Liver failure;
  • Dehydration;
  • Severe burns;
  • Allergic reaction;
  • Severe infection;
  • Kidney stones;
  • Extended prostate;
  • Blood clots in the urinary tract;
  • Damage to the nerves that control the bladder;
  • Heavy metals, narcotics, alcohol;
  • Glomerulonephritis;
  • Haemolytic-uremic syndrome;
  • Lupus;
  • Scleroderma;
  • Chemotherapy drugs, etc.

There are five types of kidney failure:

  • Acute prerenal kidney failure – caused by inadequate blood flow to the kidneys. This type of kidney failure can potentially be cured after determining and eliminating the cause of the decreased blood flow. 
  • Acute renal kidney failure – can be caused by direct kidney injury, toxic overload or ischemia.
  • Chronic prerenal kidney failure – can be caused by inadequate blood flow for an extended period of time. The kidneys begin to contract and lose their ability to function.
  • Chronic renal kidney failure – can be caused by a long-term kidney damage due to a kidney disease. 
  • Chronic postrenal kidney failure – can be caused by a long-term blockade of the urinary tract, resulting in pressure and kidney damage. 

Possible symptoms include: 

  • Reduced urine output;
  • Swelling of the legs;
  • Unexplained suffocation;
  • Excessive  fatigue;
  • Permanent nausea;
  • Confusion;
  • Pain or pressure in the chests;
  • Seizures.

The tests that can be used to diagnose kidney failure are:

  • Imaging tests;
  • Measurements of the urine volume;
  • Blood tests;
  • Urine tests;
  • Kidney tissue tests.

The type of treatment required varies depending on the cause of kidney failure. Treatment may include hemodialysis and renal transplantation.

 

Difference Between CHF and Kidney Failure

  1. Definition 

CHF: CHF is a disease of the cardiovascular system, in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic needs of the tissues, due to a disorder of its systolic and/or diastolic functions. 

Kidney Failure: Kidney failure is a condition where the kidneys have lost the ability to filter waste products from the blood. 

  1. Types

CHF: Тhe types of CHF are left-sided CHF (systolic and diastolic) and right-sided CHF. Both types can occur simultaneously. 

Kidney Failure: There are five types of kidney failure – acute prerenal kidney failure, chronic prerenal kidney failure, acute renal kidney failure, chronic renal kidney failure, and chronic postrenal kidney failure. 

  1. Symptoms

CHF: The symptoms of CHF include nighttime shortness of breath, superficial and rapid breathing, dry irritating cough and pink sputum, sweating, pale and cold skin, palpitations, cyanosis of the lips, anxiety, etc.

Kidney Failure: The symptoms of kidney failure include reduced urine output, swelling of legs, unexplained suffocation, excessive fatigue, permanent nausea, confusion, pain or pressure in the chests, seizures.

  1. Diagnosis

CHF: The CHF is diagnosed by physical (lung and heart auscultation) and instrumental examinations (electrocardiography, radiography of the lungs, echocardiography, blood-gas analysis).

Kidney Failure: The tests that can be used to diagnose kidney failure are imaging tests, measurements of the urine volume, blood tests, urine tests, kidney tissue tests.

  1. Treatment

CHF: The main medications used to treat CHF are nitrates, ACE inhibitors, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, etc.

Kidney Failure: Treatment of kidney failure may include hemodialysis and renal transplantation.

 CHF Vs. Kidney Failure: Comparison Chart

 

Summary of  CHF Vs. Kidney Failure: 

  • CHF is a disease of the cardiovascular system, in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the metabolic needs of the tissues, due to a disorder of its systolic and/or diastolic functions. 
  • Kidney failure is a condition where the kidneys have lost the ability to filter waste products from the blood. 
  • Тhe types of CHF are left-sided CHF (systolic and diastolic) and right-sided CHF. Both types can occur simultaneously. The types of kidney failure are acute prerenal kidney failure, chronic prerenal kidney failure, acute renal kidney failure, chronic renal kidney failure, and chronic postrenal kidney failure. 
  • The symptoms of CHF include nighttime shortness of breath, superficial and rapid breathing, dry irritating cough and pink sputum, sweating, pale and cold skin, palpitations, cyanosis of the lips, anxiety, etc. The symptoms of kidney failure include reduced urine output, swelling of legs, unexplained suffocation, excessive fatigue, permanent nausea, confusion, pain or pressure in the chests, seizures.
  • CHF is diagnosed by lung and heart auscultation, electrocardiography, radiography of the lungs, echocardiography, blood gas analysis. Kidney failure is diagnosed by imaging tests, measurements of the urine volume, blood tests, urine tests, kidney tissue tests.
  • The main medications used to treat CHF are nitrates, ACE inhibitors, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, etc. Treatment of kidney failure may include hemodialysis and renal transplantation.

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References :


[0]Image credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronic_kidney_disease#/media/File:Ultrasonography_of_chronic_pyelonephritis_with_reduced_kidney_size_and_focal_cortical_thinning.jpg

[1]Image credit: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Chest_radiograph_with_signs_of_congestive_heart_failure_-_annotated.jpg/535px-Chest_radiograph_with_signs_of_congestive_heart_failure_-_annotated.jpg

[2]Mann, D., D. Zipes, P. Libby, R. Bonow. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th Edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. 2014. Print. 

[3]Rayner, H., M. Thomas, D. Milford. Understanding Kidney Diseases. Berlin: Springer. 2016. Print.

[4]Warrell, D., T. Cox, J. Firth. Oxford Textbook of Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2010. Print.

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