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Difference Between State and Federal Courts

State vs Federal Courts

In the United States, there are two courts – federal and state. The federal government runs the federal court, and the state governments run the state court.

The state court is termed as the court of general jurisdiction whereas the federal court is termed as having limited jurisdiction.
One of the main differences between federal and state courts is in the jurisdiction. The jurisdiction of the federal courts is not that elaborate as that of the state courts. When the state court deals with a large number of cases, the federal court deals with fewer cases and matters related to the national interests.
The federal court mainly deals with federal concerns; federal tax offenses, drug trafficking, trafficking of firearms, robbery of federally insured banks, disputes between states, bankruptcy, and cases related to treaties and laws of the country.

Most of the criminal cases are heard in the state courts. Though crimes can be filed in the federal courts, they are not usually adjudicated there. Most of the probate (wills and estates) cases, tort cases (personal injuries), and family cases (marriage, adoption, and divorce) are handled by the state courts.

The state government appoints the judges and the prosecutors in a state court whereas the federal government appoints the judges and the prosecutors of the federal court. The President nominates the federal judges which have to be confirmed by the Senate. The federal judges hold the office during their tenure basically for life. The federal judges can be removed by impeachment.

The judges in a state court are selected in many ways, including appointment, for a certain number of years by election, appointment, and a combination of appointment and election.

Summary:

1.The state court is termed as a court of general jurisdiction whereas the federal court is termed as having limited jurisdiction.
2.The federal court mainly deals with federal concerns; federal tax offenses, drug trafficking, trafficking of firearms, robbery of federally insured banks, dispute between states, bankruptcy, and cases related to treaties and laws of the country.
3.Most of the criminal cases are heard in the state courts. Most of the probate (wills and estates) cases, tort cases (personal injuries), and family cases (marriage, adoption, and divorce) are handled by the state courts.
4.The President nominates the federal judges which have to be confirmed by the Senate. The judges in a state court are selected in many ways, including appointment, for a certain number of years by election, appointment, and a combination of appointment and election.


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