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Difference Between Genome Sequencing and Genome Mapping

What are genome sequencing and genome mapping?

Both genome map and genome sequence are engravings of a genome. 

Genome mapping helps in recognizing and identifying the gene locus and distance between the genes. This method offers a critical beginning point for the international scientific research project – HGP i.e., Human Genome Project. Mapping strategies include – low resolution physical mapping, high resolution physical mapping, Restriction Enzymes: Microscopic Scalpels, use of genetic linkage maps, Macro restriction maps: Top-down mapping, Contig maps: Bottom-up mapping, Separating Chromosomes (flow sorting and Somatic cell hybridization

Genome sequencing is method of assessing the complete deoxyribonucleic acid sequence of a living being’s genome at a single time. Genome sequencing is also termed as whole genome sequencing. Sequencing strategies include – clone-by-clone method (for larger genomes like eukaryotic genomes) and the whole genome shotgun sequencing (does not require a genome map).

This method is being used as a research tool helpful in medicinal or therapeutic interventions.  

Similarity

Similarities between genome sequencing and gene mapping include; 

  • Both are methods for analyzing genomes 
  • Both are used to figure out the location of the genes 
  • Also, both processes help in assessing illness/disease causing genes in the genome. 

Genome Sequencing

Genome sequencing is the method of assessing the nucleic acid (macromolecules found in all cells and viruses) sequence – the order of nucleotides (the basic building block of nucleic acids) in DNA. It is helpful in determining the order of the 4 nitrogen-containing biological compounds of the DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T)

Genome Mapping

It is the anatomy of human genome. Genetic maps are helpful in determining the order of markers along the chromosomes (a long Deoxyribonucleic acid molecule with part or entire genetic material of an organism) of a genome.

Difference between genome sequencing and genome mapping

Description

Genome sequencing

Gene sequencing involves identification of each and every nucleotide (an organic molecule that is the building block of Deoxyribonucleic acid and Ribonucleic acid) in a particular segment of DNA. Gene sequencing offers more comprehensive and complete details about the genome. 

Genome mapping

Genome mapping or gene mapping is a creation of a genetic map and taking Deoxyribonucleic acid fragments and assigning them to different chromosomes.

Methods

Genome sequencing

  • Shotgun sequencing
  • Pyrosequencing
  • DNA nanoball sequencing
  • Heliscope single molecule sequencing
  • Single molecule real time sequencing (SMRT)
  • Nanopore DNA sequencing

Genome mapping

  • Examination of family histories (pedigrees)
  • Cross-breeding experiments
  • Molecular biology techniques
  • Linkage analysis
  • STS mapping
  • FISH
  • Restriction mapping
  • Fingerprint mapping

Advantages

Genome sequencing

  • Helps in gathering information about medical value for future care. Helps in gaining knowledge about the type of genetic information, a DNA carries.
  • It gives information on genetic adaptations that can cause an illness or disease or can elevate the risk of illness development, even in people without any symptoms (asymptomatic people)
  • Technical accuracy
  • Safeguarding of information
  • Single test in a lifetime
  • Cascade testing to other family members
  • Information of value to future generations in a client’s family
  • Staying ahead of nongenetic healthcare providers
  • Sense of empowerment

Genome mapping

  • Medicines
  • Agricultural adaptations – improved agriculture and livestock
  • Diagnosis of illness/disease
  • Better understanding of evolution and human migration
  • Energy and environment
  • Forensics
  • More accurate risk assessment

Detailedness

Genome sequencing

The details obtained by gene sequencing offer complete and comprehensive details 

Genome mapping

The details obtained by gene mapping offer lesser details 

Time and Cost

Genome sequencing

This is a very pricey method and is also time consuming

Genome mapping

Genome mapping is not expensive and is a cheap method. It also takes very less time.  

Summary

The points of difference between genome sequencing and genome mapping have been summarized as below:

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References :


[0]Burr, B., Burr, F. A., Thompson, K. H., Albertson, M. C., & Stuber, C. W. (1988). Gene mapping with recombinant inbreds in maize. Genetics, 118(3), 519-526.

[1]Lewin, H. A., Larkin, D. M., Pontius, J., & O'Brien, S. J. (2009). Every genome sequence needs a good map. Genome research, 19(11), 1925-1928.

[2]Mardis, E. R. (2008). Next-generation DNA sequencing methods. Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet., 9, 387-402.

[3]Marie, R., Pedersen, J. N., Bærlocher, L., Koprowska, K., Pødenphant, M., Sabatel, C., ... & Mir, K. U. (2018). Single-molecule DNA-mapping and whole-genome sequencing of individual cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(44), 11192-11197.

[4]Zuryn, S., Le Gras, S., Jamet, K., & Jarriault, S. (2010). A strategy for direct mapping and identification of mutations by whole-genome sequencing. Genetics, 186(1), 427-430.

[5]Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Disease_Gene_Mapping_with_Multiple_Chromosomes.jpg

[6]Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Whole_genome_shotgun_sequencing_versus_Hierarchical_shotgun_sequencing.png

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