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Difference Between Science and Social Science

Science vs Social Science

Science (in particular, physical or natural science) and social science are two types of science that share many things, but they are also different in many levels.

The main similarities between science and social sciences include the following:

Both sciences employ the same scientific model in order to gain information. Some branches of each science even employ both natural and social science components. Examples from the natural sciences include biology and ecology while economics and psychology from the social sciences are also included.
Both have general laws that each science apply in its numerous applications.
Both use empirical and measured data evidence that can be seen and discerned by the senses. Also, theories in both sciences can be tested to produce theoretical statements and general positions.

However, differences are also plentiful between the two types of sciences. Science is

often attributed as natural or physical science. As its name implies, this science is

concerned with the study of nature – the physical and natural behaviors and

phenomena without the social, cultural, or the human context or aspect.

The basis of the natural sciences is the experimental data. Experimental data relies on repeated experiments, laboratory testing, and constant reproductions of results. The

methodology of natural or physical science is often characterized as fixed and straightforward with the constant element of standard measurements. The methodology also employs experiments. Data from these experiments often represent predictability and rationality.

Physical and natural science works in a closed system where variables can be controlled, and the work is executed within a particular framework or paradigm.

On the other hand, social sciences revolve around the behavior of humans as a people, human societies, their production and operations. This type of science is also very concerned with the cultural and human context and tries to explain how the world works. Its main aim is to study the complex and changing phenomena that occur in human and social life and their interactions with one another.

The basis of social sciences is the experiential data. Experiential data tries to establish social phenomena and are not easily reproduced in a laboratory or in any experiment.
The social sciences’ methodology starts with an assumption and is gradually filled by a
series of experiments and observations. The data collection methods are often done by
a variety of techniques like field observation, interviews, and focus group discussions.
The experiments and the data collected done in social sciences denote spontaneity and
deal with emotions of the people involved.

Social sciences operate on an open system where uncontrollable variables are expected. It is also considered as a cumulative science which is characterized by progress as the study goes on.


1.Science (also known as pure, natural, or physical science) and social science are two types of science that deal with the same scientific model and constituents of their own respective general laws.
2.Science is more concerned in studying nature while social science is concerned with human behavior and societies.
3.Pure science is characterized by control, exactness, rationality, controlled variables, and predictability while social science is the opposite – it is spontaneous, unpredictable or uncontrollable varieties, and deals with human emotions and behavior.
4.The basis of natural science is experimental data while social sciences rely on experiential data.
5.The usual method of science (with respect to experimental data) is doing repetitive and conventional experiments in a laboratory while social science (in lieu of experiential data) usually involves alternative methods of observation and interaction with people within a community.
6.Natural or physical science work within a closed system while social sciences work within an open system.

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