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Difference Between Centrosome and Centromere

Centrosome and centromere are structures involved in cell division. Centrosomes occur only in animal cells, where they regulate the cell cycle and organize the microtubules. Centromeres occur in all eukaryotic cells and are responsible for the movement of replicated chromosomes to the daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis.

What is Centrosome?

Centrosome is an organelle, regulating the cell cycle and organizing the microtubules. It occurs only in animal cells. The centers for organization of microtubules in plants and fungi are different.

Each centrosome consists of two centrioles and pericentriolar material. The centrioles consist of centrin, tektin, and nine triplets of microtubules. Pericentriolar material is an amorphous mass surrounding the centrioles. It contains proteins responsible for the polymerization of microtubules and its termination (peristrin, γ-tubulin, and ninein). The centrosome doubles through the cell division and one centrosome with two centrioles goes to each of the daughter cell after mitosis. During prophase, the two newly formed centrosomes go to the opposite poles of the cell. Centrosome plays an essential role in the formation of cilia and flagellum.

Centrosomes are not obligatory organelles for the course of mitotic division. Upon irradiation of this organelle with a laser, the mitosis proceeds normally and forms a normal spindle. However, although centrosomes are not necessary for the survival of the cell, they are important for the survival of the whole organism as they refine cell division. Deviation from the normal number of centrosomes in the cell is associated with cancer.

 

 

What is Centromere?

The centromere is a section of DNA (non-coding) that is responsible for the movement of replicated chromosomes to the daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis.

A chromosome is made up of two sister chromatids that bind to each other in the centromere. Each chromosome has arms, primary constriction, and telomeres. Primary constriction splits the chromosome into two arms. The centromere is a small-sized bubble situated in the primary constriction. A kinetochore (disk structure composed mainly of proteins) is located on either side of the centromere.

The centromere, together with the kinetochore is responsible for the proper separation of chromosomes in daughter cells during cell division. The division spindle is attached to the centromere, which together with the cell centers (poles) makes up the cell division apparatus.

The centromeres can be:

  • Regional centromeres, forming on preferred DNA sequences;
  • Point centromeres, recognizing certain DNA sequences.

 

Difference Between Centrosome and Centromere

Definition

Centrosome: Centrosome is an organelle, regulating the cell cycle and organizing the microtubules.

Centromere: The centromere is a section of non-coding DNA, responsible for the movement of replicated chromosomes to the daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis.

Occurance

Centrosome: Centrosome occurs only in animal cells.

Centromere: Centromere occurs in all eukaryotic cells.

Function

Centrosome: Centrosomes are the main center for microtubules’ organization of the and regulator of the cell division. It has an essential role in the formation of cilia and flagellum.

Centromere: The fibers of the spindle attach to the centromere to pull the sister chromatids to the poles during cell division.

Structure

Centrosome: Centrosomes consist of two centrioles and amorphous mass surrounding them called pericentriolar material.

Centromere: Centromere consists of non-coding DNA.

Number

Centrosome: Each cell has one centrosome.

Centromere: The number of centromeres in the cell equals the number of chromosomes.

Centrosome Vs. Centromere: Comparison Chart

 

Summary of Centrosome Vs. Centromere

  • Centrosome and centromere are structures involved in cell division.
  • Centrosome is an organelle, regulating the cell cycle and organizing the microtubules.
  • The centromere is a section of non-coding DNA, responsible for the movement of replicated chromosomes to the daughter cells during mitosis and meiosis.
  • Centrosomes occur only in animal cells, while centromeres occur in all eukaryotic cells.
  • The centrosome is the main center for organization of the microtubules and regulator of the   cell division. It has an essential role in the conformation of cilia and flagellum. The fibers of the spindle attach to the centromere to move the two newly formed chromosomes to the poles during cell division.
  • Centrosomes consist of two centrioles and amorphous mass surrounding them called pericentriolar material. Centromere consists of non-coding DNA.
  • Each cell has one centrosome. The number of centromeres in the cell equals the number of chromosomes.
Dr. Mariam Bozhilova Forest Research Institute, BAS
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References :


[0]Image credit: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4e/Centromere_Placement.svg/500px-Centromere_Placement.svg.png

[1]Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Centrosome_(borderless_version)-en.svg

[2]Ayala, J. and J. Kiger. Modern Genetics. San Francisco: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company. 1989. Print.

[3]Klug, W. and M. Cummings. Concepts of Genetics (6th Edition). 1999. Print.

[4]Stubs, M. and N. Suleyman. Cell biology and genetics. China: Elsevier. 2013. Print.

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