Difference Between DNA and RNA
DNA vs RNA
There are quite a few differences between DNA and RNA. The important one pertains to the presence of sugar in the molecules of both. An RNA molecule has Ribose as its sugar whereas a DNA molecule has deoxyribose.
Though both DNA and RNA consist of repetitive units of nucleotides, the difference is in their sugar component, as described below. That apart, RNA has a far greater range of nucleic acid bases as opposed to DNA’s about four. This gives RNA the unique ability to assume different shapes and functions. Though DNA performs the more important part of laying down the benchmark and determines genetic characteristics. In simple terms we could see DNA as having two strands, while RNA has a single one. Thus we can see that the two have a symbiotic relationship but different destinies. They are both critically important, yet evolve differently.
Deoxyribose sugar in DNA reacts less on account of C-H bonds. It is stable in Alkalaine conditions, as DNA contains smaller grooves where the damaging enzymes can get attached, which makes it difficult for these to attack it. Ribose sugar on the other hand is more reactive because of C-OH (hydroxyl bonds). It is not at all stable in alkaline conditions, as RNA has larger grooves, which makes it vulnerable to attacks by enzymes. B form defines the helix geometry of DNA. The body destroys enzymes that cling to DNA. It can be though damaged by exposure to ultra violet rays.
Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, but have a few basic differences, as explained above. Unlike DNA, RNA structures do not consist of self complementary sequences that allow parts of the RNA to fold and form its own pairs and make double. They in fact consist of short helices packed together into protein like structures.
The acronyms DNA and RNA respectively stand for Deoxyribonucleic acid and Ribonucleic acid. By definition the former is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic markers of all living organisms. The latter is a nucleic acid polymer that performs an important role in the whole process that translates genetic information from DNA into protein products.
The main function of DNA is to perform long term storage and transfer of genetic information. RNA on the other hand performs the function of a messenger between DNA and the protein system complexes known as ribosomes. DNA is located in the nucleus, the genetic material and as the sugar in the deoxiribose. RNA on the other hand can be found in the nucleus and cytoplasm
There is thus no doubt about the fact that DNA and RNA are different from each other. Nevertheless the two are important for the functioning of each other. Interestingly whatever traits a person has, is attributable to the composition of storage in DNA and the functioning of the RNA. DNA and RNA are thus more than similar sounding acronyms. They are similar, yet different and hold the key to life.
1.RNA consists of ribose sugar while DNA has deoxiribose.
2.DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded.
3.DNA is stable in alkaline conditions while RNA is not.
4.DNA performs long term storage and transfer of genetic information while RNA performs the function of a messenger between DNA and the protein system complexes known as ribosomes.
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