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Difference Between RNA and mRNA

RNA vs mRNA

Modern science says there are tiny building blocks which make up the blueprint of a human being’s genome. These micro-components control and decide the structure, function, and processes in every living cell. In the evolutionary period of life millions of years ago, the presence of these minute elements can trace us to where it all started and explain how life began to transform. Minute as they may be, these basic units have their own complexities. Considering two of them, they are the so-called RNA and mRNA.

RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a chief and indispensable macromolecule (aside from DNA and proteins) of all kinds of existing life on the face of the Earth. RNA is also responsible in acting as a mediator in some of the biological processes of cells, such as directing genetic appearance, and communicating to the cell’s signals for a response. On the other hand, messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type or a particle of RNA also known as the “outline” for making protein. Messenger RNA is mainly in charge in the protein synthesis of the cell which is manufactured in the ribosome. Protein synthesis is the one accountable for the production of energy needed by the human body as well as the vital function of breathing; thus, a very essential unit for survival.

RNA has three subtypes: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. mRNA, also known as messenger RNA, is the key for the delivery of data from the structural gene’s DNA to the ribosome where protein synthesis occurs. tRNA, or transfer RNA, brings the amino acids to the ribosome’s mRNA where protein is being assembled. Lastly, rRNA, or ribosomal RNA, is the main structural element of the ribosome where the synthesis of protein occurs. As for the case of mRNA, it is classified into two kinds: the monocistronic mRNA and the polycistonic mRNA. A monocistronic mRNA, from the prefix mono-, meaning single, only one protein can be translated by the genetic information contained within it. It is a common case for eukaryotic mRNAs. On the contrary, polycistronic mRNA, from the prefix poly-, meaning numerous, many proteins can be translated by the genetic information contained in several genes. These proteins are grouped together called an operon.

In terms of structure, RNA, like DNA, is composed of an extensive chain of elements also termed as nucleotides. A nucleotide has three complex groups, namely: the nucleobase or nitrogenous base, the phosphate group, and a ribose sugar. A genetic database is solely based on the arrangement in sequence of the nucleotides. RNA has a component of a ribose sugar surrounded by 1`-5` numbered carbons. On the 1` carbon, a base is connected, namely: uracil (U), cytosine (C), adenine (A) or guanine (G). The 3` carbon of one ribose has a phosphate group attached to it while the 5` carbon is attached to the next. In which case, mRNA is just a copy of a DNA template. The mRNA typically includes the guanine cap or 5` cap, poly-adenine tail, coding region, and spliced intron and exon. On the front end of the mRNA strand, some guanine nucleotides are connected to make the ribosome bonding stronger. On the tail end of the mRNA strand, some adenine nucleotides are connected to avoid damage done by RNases (RNA breakdown of enzymes). Coding regions contain codons, proteins found in the ribosome, which are translated and decoded. It starts with a start codon and terminates with an end codon. During splicing, introns are eliminated because they are segments which have no ability to code protein while exons are combined together because they code for protein.

SUMMARY:

1.RNA is responsible in acting as a mediator in some of the biological processes of cells such as directing genetic appearance and communicating to the cell’s signals for a response. On the other hand, messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type or a particle of RNA also known as the “outline” for making protein. Messenger RNA is mainly in charge in the protein synthesis of the cell which is manufactured in the ribosome.

2.On the basis of classifications, RNA has three subtypes: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA while mRNA is classified into two kinds: the monocistronic mRNA and the polycistronic mRNA.

3.In terms of structure, RNA, like DNA, is composed of an extensive chain of elements also termed as nucleotides. A nucleotide has three complex groups, namely: the nucleobase or nitrogenous base, the phosphate group, and a ribose sugar. The mRNA typically includes the guanine cap or 5` cap, poly-adenine tail, coding region, and spliced intron and exon.


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