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Difference between Python and JavaScript

Python and JavaScript are both high-level programming languages and are pretty much as simple as it gets, in terms of programming language. They are both top candidates for the best first language. JavaScript is undoubtedly one of the easiest web programming languages to use. For now and the foreseeable future, there’s only one browser-based programming language. JavaScript went from non-existence to global adoption in a very short period of time and that means something. However, because a technology is easily accessible, it doesn’t mean it’s a good reason to use the technology. Python has achieved substantial popularity over the past few years and it still continues to impress as one of the fastest growing and most popular programming languages. Let’s take a look at a head-to-head comparison between the two popular programming languages.


What is Python?

Python is a powerful multiparadigm computer programming language used for general-purpose programming. It is a scripting language like PHP, Perl, Ruby, and more, used for developing both desktop and web applications. It is one of the most popular and widely used programming languages used in data science, second only to R. It’s an open source language optimized for code readability, programmer productivity, and software quality. It’s a thriving data processing ecosystem with unmatched general purpose and it’s getting better day by day. It is also the fastest-growing programming language used for both standalone programs and scripting applications in a wide variety of domains. Above all, it’s relatively easy and amazingly fun to use.


What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a lightweight, high-level web programming language designed to create network-centric applications. It is one of the easiest languages to use – it is built into the client and requires no server technologies. The best part, it’s the language of the web browser. It’s the association with the browser that makes JavaScript one of the most popular web programming languages in the world. The most amazing thing about JavaScript is that it’s easy to get work done with it without knowing much about the language, or even knowing much about programming. It’s also very limited in scope. It cannot access external information, whether on the client or the server. You’d need other server-based technologies such as PHP, CGI, and so on, for more complex tasks.


Difference between Python and JavaScript

  1. Basics of Python Vs. JavaScript

– JavaScript is a powerful, high-level web programming language most commonly used as a client side scripting language. It is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web used to create dynamic websites and provide enhanced user interfaces. It is essentially used in web development. Python is a scripting language like PHP, Perl, Ruby, and more, used for developing both desktop and web applications and can be used almost anywhere. JavaScript is the only first-class language in web browsers, with Python being excluded.

  1. Inheritance 

– Python supports inheritance and it even supports multiple inheritance. In inheritance, a class (superclass) can inherit from another class (subclass). It can inherit attributes and behavior methods from other classes. Python uses a class-based inheritance model, whereas JavaScript uses prototype-based inheritance model which represents some of the most complex aspects of JavaScript. Because JavaScript is not a class-based object-oriented language unlike other languages, all the objects of JavaScript inherit properties and methods from a prototype. It uses the concepts of prototype and prototype chaining for inheritance.

  1. Function Arguments

 – In Python, if a function is called incorrectly supplying the wrong number of arguments or incorrect parameters, Python will raise an exception at the time the function was called. This means the type of actual arguments is unknown until the function is called. Each exception comes with a custom error message. JavaScript functions, on the other hand, can take random and infinite number of arguments which can be accessed via the arguments object. JavaScript doesn’t care if the functions are called with correct parameters or not. If a variable points to no object, it is said to be undefined.

  1. Mutability of Python and JavaScript

 – All data in Python are represented as objects, some of which are mutable meaning their content can be altered without changing their identity. Mutable simply means an object can be modified after it’s been created and on the contrary, immutable means the value cannot be changed. All objects in Python can be either mutable or immutable. Objects like set, list, and dict are mutable, whereas objects like int, tuple, bool, Unicode are immutable. Only objects and arrays are mutable in JavaScript, not primitive values. 

Python vs. JavaScript: Comparison Chart


Summary of Python Vs. JavaScript

Apart from the differences in syntax, Python and JavaScript actually have a lot in common – they can both work without needing a compilation step, both have garbage collection, and both are primarily developed with a text editor. Besides all the similarities, they have their fair share of distinction points. JavaScript can be solely used for building interactive web pages, whereas Python can be used for both standalone programs and scripting applications in a wide variety of domains. However, Python libraries are similar to JavaScript associative arrays. Python has a steeper learning curve compared to that of JavaScript which makes it one of the easiest programming languages to use.

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References :

[0]Image credit: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:JavaScript_logo.svg

[1]Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lozingle_10032014.jpg

[2]Dale, Kyran. Data Visualization with Python and JavaScript. Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly Media, 2016. Print

[3]Crockford, Douglas. JavaScript: The Good Parts. Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly Media, 2008. Print

[4]Schafer, Steven M. Web Standards Programmer's Reference. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print

[5]Lutz, Mark. Learning Python. Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly Media, 2013. Print

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