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Difference Between Gout and Osteoarthritis

What is Gout?

Gout is a metabolic disease caused by disorders of the metabolism of uric acid and its salts. Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in the body. Most of it is synthesized in the body and only a small part is received with food,

The uric acid is dissolved in the blood and tissue fluids. When its level increases to 380 µmol/l, crystallization and deposition conditions are obtained in the tissues. When it exceeds 540 µmol/l, the risk of crystallization reaches 90%.

Crystalline uric acid deposition is predominantly in the articular tissue, soft tissues around the joints, helix, and in the renal parenchyma.

Depending on how the disease develops, gout can be primary and secondary.

The primary gout is an inherited disease associated with an enzyme defect resulting in impaired metabolism of the nucleoproteins. The sedentary lifestyle, obesity, excessive consumption of meat and alcohol have a significant influence on the development of primary gout.

Secondary gout occurs with other diseases, associated with increased tissue breakdown – leukosis, cytostatic treatment, etc.

In general, gout occurs in 4 major stages:

  • Asymptomatic hyperuricemia 

– the patient has elevated levels of uric acid but no other symptoms.

  • Acute gout 

– often occurs at night and can be caused by stressful events, alcohol, drugs, and other illnesses. After a few days to three weeks, the attack subsides.

  • Intermittent stage 

an asymptomatic interval between two gout attacks.

  • Chronic gout 

– a permanent damage to the affected joints and, in some cases, to the kidneys.

Symptoms of gout include:

  • Sudden, long and severe pain in the big toe or ankle;
  • Swelling and redness;
  • Difficult movement of the joint;
  • Increased uric acid levels in the blood;
  • Kidney inflammation;
  • Kidney stones.

Gout is diagnosed relatively easy, based at the symptoms and results of an examination. More detailed information about the specific condition of the patient is gathered by a blood test for uric acid, X-ray, ultrasound, etc.

Gout is a curable disease. The greatest influence have different diets and limiting the intake of alcohol. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to limit acute gout attacks.

 

What is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease in which one or more joints change due to biochemical degradation of their hyaline cartilage. Osteoarthritis includes damage not only of the cartilage but also of the entire joint, including damage of the subchondral bone, formation of osteophytes (bone spurs), inflammatory process in the synovium, etc.

The most common osteoarthritis changes occur in the knee, hip, shoulder joints, joints of the foot, spine, distal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the hands.

The causes of osteoarthritis can be primary and secondary.

The primary causes are:

  • Age;
  • Metabolism;
  • Genetic factors;
  • Overweight;
  • Level of certain hormones at different periods of life;
  • Sedentary lifestyle and immobilization of the joints;
  • Inflammatory processes in the joints – bacterial and viral infections;
  • Psychological factors.

The secondary causes of osteoarthritis are:

  • Injuries of joints and bones;
  • Congenital malformations of the locomotor system;
  • Inflammatory processes in the joints;
  • Aseptic bone necrosis;
  • Metabolic diseases;
  • Endocrine diseases;
  • Digestive tract disorders;
  • Degenerative processes of joints and intervertebral discs of the spine.

Symptoms of osteoarthritis are different, depending on the number of affected joints, the age of the patient, and the presence of accompanying diseases. The most common symptoms are:

  • Pain – deep in the joint, stronger in physical activity;
  • Stiffness of the joint – after prolonged rest;
  • Limited movement in the joint;
  • Swelling;
  • Heat and redness of the skin above the joint;
  • Weakening of the muscles;
  • Spasms;
  • Deformation of the joint, etc.

The types of osteoarthritis are:

  1. Spinal osteoarthritis;
  2. Gonarthrosis – knee joint disease;
  3. Coxarthrosis – affects the hip joint;
  4. Osteoarthritis of the distal and proximal joints of the fingers;
  5. Osteoarthritis of the shoulder;
  6. Osteoarthritis of the foot.

The osteoarthritis is diagnosed based on the symptoms described and the outcome of an examination. A number of tests are made, like X-ray examination, nuclear magnetic resonance, arthroscopy, ultrasound, etc.

The aim of the treatment is to minimize pain and stiffness, to control the inflammation, to improve the functions of the affected joints, and to prevent or slow the progression of the degenerative process.

The treatment includes:

  • Weight reduction;
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • Physiotherapy and rehabilitation;
  • Glucosamine sulfate food supplements;
  • Chondroprotectors;
  • Surgical treatment, etc.

 

Difference Between Gout and Osteoarthritis

  1. Definition

Gout: Gout is a metabolic disease caused by disorders of the metabolism of uric acid and its salts.

Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease in which one or more joints change due to biochemical degradation of their hyaline cartilage.

  1. Types

Gout: Depending on how the disease develops, gout is primary and secondary.

Osteoarthritis: Depending on the affected joint, the osteoarthritis is spinal osteoarthritis, gonarthrosis, coxarthrosis, osteoarthritis of the distal and proximal joints of the fingers, osteoarthritis of the shoulder, etc.

  1. Etiology

Gout: The primary gout is an inherited disease associated with an enzyme defect resulting in impaired metabolism of the nucleoproteins. The lifestyle has a significant influence on the development of primary gout. Secondary gout occurs with other diseases associated with increased tissue breakdown.

Osteoarthritis: The primary causes of osteoarthritis are the age, metabolism, genetic factors, overweight, the level of certain hormones, sedentary lifestyle and immobilization of the joints, inflammatory processes in the joints, psychological factors. The secondary causes of osteoarthritis are injuries of joints and bones, congenital malformations of the locomotor system, inflammatory processes in the joints, aseptic bone necrosis, metabolic diseases, endocrine diseases, degenerative processes of joints.

  1. Symptoms

Gout: The symptoms of gout are a sudden, long and severe pain in the big toe or ankle, swelling and redness, difficult moving of the joint, increased uric acid levels in the blood, kidney inflammation, kidney stones, etc.

Osteoarthritis: The symptoms of osteoarthritis are pain and stiffness in the joint, limited movement, swelling, heat and redness of the skin above the joint, weakening of the muscles, spasms, deformation of the joint, etc.

  1. Diagnosis

Gout: Gout is diagnosed based at the symptoms and results of an examination. More detailed information about the specific condition of the patient is gathered by a blood test for uric acid, X-ray examination, ultrasound, etc.

Osteoarthritis: The osteoarthritis is diagnosed based at the symptoms and the outcome of an examination. A number of tests are made, like X-ray examination, nuclear magnetic resonance, arthroscopy, ultrasound, etc.

  1. Treatment

Gout: The treatment of gout includes different diets and limiting the intake of alcohol. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to limit acute gout attacks.

Osteoarthritis: The treatment of osteoarthritis includes weight reduction, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, rehabilitation, glucosamine sulfate food supplements, chondroprotectors, surgical treatment, etc.

Gout Vs. Osteoarthritis

 

Summary of Gout Vs. Osteoarthritis:

  • Gout is a metabolic disease caused by disorders of the metabolism of uric acid and its salts.
  • Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease in which one or more joints change due to biochemical degradation of their hyaline cartilage.
  • Depending on how the disease develops, gout is primary or secondary. Depending on the affected joint, the osteoarthritis is gonarthrosis, coxarthrosis, osteoarthritis of the shoulder, etc.
  • The primary gout is an inherited disease, significantly influenced by the lifestyle. Secondary gout occurs with other diseases associated with increased tissue breakdown. The causes of osteoarthritis are age, metabolism, genetic factors, inflammatory processes, psychological factors, injuries, metabolic diseases, endocrine diseases, degenerative processes of joints, etc.
  • The symptoms of gout are a sudden, long and severe pain in the big toe or ankle, swelling and redness, difficult moving of the joint, increased uric acid levels in the blood, kidney inflammation, kidney stones, etc. The symptoms of osteoarthritis are pain and stiffness in the joint, limited movement, swelling, heat and redness of the skin above the joint, weakening of the muscles, spasms, deformation of the joint, etc.
  • Gout and osteoarthritis are diagnosed based at the symptoms and the results of an examination. More detailed information about the specific condition of the patient with goat is gathered by a blood test for uric acid, X-ray examination, ultrasound, etc. In osteoarthritis, the applied tests are an X-ray examination, nuclear magnetic resonance, arthroscopy, ultrasound, etc.
  • The treatment of gout includes different diets and limiting the intake of alcohol. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to limit acute gout attacks. The treatment of osteoarthritis includes weight reduction, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, rehabilitation, food supplements, chondroprotectors, surgical treatment, etc.

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References :


[0]Image credit: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Gout_Advanced.jpg/640px-Gout_Advanced.jpg

[1]Image credit: https://pixabay.com/en/arthrocalman-osteoarthritis-knee-2384253/

[2]Fox, B., N. Taylor, J. Yazdany, S. Brewer. Arthritis for Dummies. London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 20011. Print. 

[3]Kapoor, M., N. Mahomed (Eds.) Osteoarthritis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Available Treatments, Drug Safety, Regenerative and Precision Medicine. Basel: Springer International Publishing. 2015. Print. 

[4]Konshin, V. Beating Gout: A Sufferer's Guide to Living Pain Free. New York: Ayerware Publishing. 2009. Print.

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