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Difference Between Urology and Nephrology

Urology vs Nephrology

Medicine is a diverse field, and physicians or doctors are required to specialize in a certain area of medicine during their residency training. There are many specialties that they can choose to specialize in.

The most common are:

Emergency medicine, which involves the immediate evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with acute illnesses or injuries to prevent death or further damage.
Family practice, where the doctor is trained to diagnose and treat medical problems, care and prevention of illnesses that might be encountered by members of a family.
Obstetrics-gynecology, where doctors specialize in women’s health and can involve surgery and other medical fields.
Orthopedic surgery, which involves any medical problems concerning the musculoskeletal system.
Pediatrics, which involves medical problems in children and adolescents.
Psychiatry, which involves the treatment of mental and emotional disorders.
Surgery, which is concerned with surgical solutions to medical problems that cannot be treated with drugs.
Internal medicine, wherein doctors are trained in the treatment of infections and ailments of the internal organs including the heart (cardiology), respiratory system (pulmonology), kidneys (nephrology), and urinary tract (urology).

Urology is a medical specialization that deals with the human urinary tracts and the reproductive system of males. It also involves surgery and the treatment of medical problems involving the kidneys, adrenal glands, and the urinary bladder.

Medical disorders affecting the urinary tract can also affect the reproductive tract, especially in males, since these organs are situated close to each other. Urology aims at solving medical and surgical problems concerning these areas of the body. It is closely related to the fields of oncology, gynecology, andrology, gastroenterology, endocrinology, pediatric surgery, and nephrology.

Nephrology is the medical specialization that deals with problems of the kidneys and other systemic diseases that need special treatment. It is a branch of internal medicine and pediatrics that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting these areas of the body.
It includes the treatment of hypertension, renal failure and transplant, electrolyte disturbance, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and urinary tract infection, hematuria, proteinuria, lupus, and polycystic diseases.

To become a full-fledged nephrologist, a graduate of medical school must complete a three-year residency in internal medicine and a two-year fellowship in nephrology. Renal diseases and those of the bladder and prostate which can be treated with surgery are referred to urologists. There are several subdisciplines of urology, namely:

Urologic oncology
Pediatric urology
Reconstructive urology
Female urology


1.Urology is the medical and surgical treatment of disorders in the urinary tract and the male reproductive system while nephrology is the medical field that deals with the functions and disorders of the kidneys.
2.Urology entails surgical procedures while nephrology does not.
3.Urology and nephrology are closely related fields, and disorders that cannot be treated with nephrology can be treated with surgery.
4.Urology primarily deals with the urinary tract while nephrology deals with the kidneys.

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