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Difference Between Haploid and Diploid

HAPLOID vs. DIPLOID

A chromosome is described as a double-helix structure that confines DNA and protein in cells. It is a strand of DNA which contains genes found in living organisms and also the hereditary material that defines the development and characteristics of each organism. . In addition, chromosomes allow DNA to replicate or reproduce itself so that as cell will divide to further produce two cells, each of these new cells will possess all of the necessary genetic information needed. Chromosomes occur in a pair off within the organism’s cell which can replicate sexually. A single chromosome is obtained from the female parent, and the other one is acquired from the male parent. The two chromosomes of each pair off include genetic factors that keep up a correspondence with the same innate characteristics. Every pair of chromosomes is distinct from each of the paired of chromosomes in the same cell. Haploid and diploid are two different terms referring to the number of chromosomal set present in a biological cell. Hence their differences are further noted.

A cell containing two sets of chromosomes is called a diploid cell. Humans possess a total of twenty-three (23) pairs of chromosomes, which brings it to a total of forty-six (46) pair of chromosomes. The Twenty-two pairs are autosomal in nature meaning they lend non-sexual characteristics while the last pair is identified as the sex chromosome. A haploid cell, on the other hand, is that cell which contains only a single set of chromosomes in it. Haploid cells are found in many algae, in few male bees, wasps as well as in ants. Haploid cells should not be used interchangeably with monoploid cells since monoploid cells refer to the number of unique chromosomes in a single biological cell.

In addition, diploid cells are developed as a result of mitotic cell division whereas haploid cells are developed as a result of meiotic cell division. During the process of meiosis, a type of cell division wherein diploid cells divide to give rise to haploid germ cells or spores, the diploid germ cell further divides to produce four haploid cells in two rounds of cell division. Meiosis is only applicable for gametes or sex cells wherein the parent cells separate their chromosome sets into two. This is the reason why the diploid individual undergoes meiosis that will generate a haploid product. To continue, diploid cell is formed during the process of reproduction in which the female and male haploid cells unite during fertilization and zygote formation. Cell growth is the result of mitosis, a process that results when mother cells divide to produce identical daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes. Thus, diploid cells are those which have a complete set of chromosomes while haploid cells are those that contain half the number of chromosomes in the nucleus.

Moreover, diploid cells are formed in the somatic cells of the body whereas haploid cells are the sex cells or the so called gametes which take part in reproduction. Most somatic cells in human are in a diploid state and only changed to a haploid state in gametes or sex cells.

SUMMARY:
1. A haploid cell has only one set of chromosomes while diploid cell has two sets of chromosomes.

2. The somatic cells are diploid and the gametes are haploid in humans.

3. Diploid cells are developed as a result of mitotic cell division whereas haploid cells are developed as a result of meiotic cell division.

4. When mitosis produces 2 identical daughter cells, both the parent and daughter cells referred to as diploid while in meiosis a diploid cell divides twice to produce 4 daughter cells that are considered haploid.

5. Humans and most animal cells are considered diploid organisms while algae and fungi are examples of organisms that are mostly haploid in the course of their life cycle. Male bees, wasps as well as ants are also haploid.

6. In humans, a diploid cell contains a total of 46 chromosomes, while haploid cells have 23 homologous chromosome pairs.


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1 Comment

  1. Does the genes of both set of diploid cell are same.if yes or not then why

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