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Difference Between Coronavirus and Rhinovirus

What is Coronavirus and Rhinovirus?

Both the viruses are two types of single-stranded Ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of the host cell. Both Coronaviruses and Rhinoviruses are responsible for causing serious respiratory illnesses. 

These viruses have been identified as major triggers for the common cold syndrome. Both Coronavirus and Rhinovirus cause common symptoms like continuous coughing, runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, runny nose, and nasal congestion. Both viruses spread via person-to-person contact and through aerosols of respiratory droplets and direct person-to-person contact. 

Also, there is no vaccination available for both the viruses. However, there are some differences as well which have been discussed below. 

What is Coronavirus? 

Coronaviruses are a type of viruses that result in serious sicknesses in aves (birds), mammals, and humans. These viruses find their way into the bodies of several animals and infect cats, bats, camels, turkeys, snakes etc. These viruses sometimes evolve and infect humans. In animals, (HCoV) coronaviruses can result in upper respiratory diseases in chickens and diarrhea in pigs, cows. 

2 human coronaviruses (HCoVs) i.e., OC43 (a subspecies of enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus in the species Beta coronavirus 1) and 229E (the first coronavirus strains ever described and a single-stranded, positive-sense, RNA virus species in the genus Alphacoronavirus) are responsible for a large proportion of common colds.

Rhinovirus

Rhinovirus is a primary cause of the common cold. They cause 10% to 40% of the colds. This virus acts as the most common agent for causing several viral infections in the humans. But unlike other viruses that cause the common cold, rhinoviruses rarely make us seriously sick. 

About 50 percent of common colds are caused by some type of rhinovirus.

Difference between Coronavirus and Rhinovirus

Definition

Coronavirus

Coronavirus name is derived because of the crown like projections on its surface. Meaning of “Corona” in Latin is “crown” or “halo”.  It is an enveloped virus that has crown like projection on its surface. It usually spreads from animals to humans. People who have weak immune systems are easily infected because the virus spreads swiftly from person-to-person 

Rhinovirus

The “rhino” in rhinovirus is derived from the Greek word meaning “nose”. This virus is non-enveloped that is icosahedral in structure.

The virus is responsible for most of the common cold conditions and exacerbates medical conditions like asthma bronchiolitis, and viral pneumonia. 

The symptoms, transmission and prevention are similar to that of Coronavirus.

Types

Coronavirus

  1. MERS-CoV, which causes Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
  2. 229E (alpha coronavirus)
  3. (SARS-CoV), which causes Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
  4. NL63 (alpha coronavirus)
  5. OC43 (beta coronavirus)
  6. HKU1 (beta coronavirus)

Rhinovirus

  1. Human Rhinovirus A – consists of the following 80 serotypes: rhinovirus (RV) A1, A2, A7, A8, A9, A10, A11, A12, A13, A15, A16, A18, A19, A20, A21, A22, A23, A24, A25, A28, A29, A30, A31, A32, A33, A34, A36, A38, A39, A40, A41, A43, A45, A46, A47, A49, A50, A51, A53, A54, A55, A56, A57, A58, A59, A60, A61, A62, A63, A64, A65, A66, A67, A68, A71, A73, A74, A75, A76, A77, A78, A80, A81, A82, A85, A88, A89, A90, A94, A96, A100, A101, A102, A103, A104, A105, A106, A107, A108, A109.
  2. Human Rhinovirus B – cconsists of the following 32 types: rhinovirus (RV) B3, B4, B5, B6, B14, B17, B26, B27, B35, B37, B42, B48, B52, B69, B70, B72, B79, B83, B84, B86, B91, B92, B93, B97, B99, B100, B101, B102, B103, B104, B105 & B106.
  3. Human Rhinovirus C – These viruses have been referred to as HRV-A2 due to its closer relationship with RV-A

Structure of the virus

Coronavirus

It is an enveloped virus that has a nucleocapsid (the capsid of a virus with the enclosed nucleic acid) of helical symmetry (symmetry in which protein subunits and the nucleic acid are arranged in a helix) and crown like projections on the surface. 

Rhinovirus

It is a non-enveloped virus which possesses a nucleocapsid (the capsid of a virus with the enclosed nucleic acid) of icosahedral symmetry (virus consisting of identical subunits that form 20 equilateral triangular faces)

Genome size

Coronavirus

Coronavirus genome size ranging from 26 to 32 kilobases in length

Rhinovirus

Rhinovirus genome size is 7200 and 8500 nucleotides

Family and Genus

Coronavirus

Genus Betacoronavirus

Family‎: ‎Coronaviridae

Rhinovirus

Genus: Enterovirus

Family: Picornaviridae

Summary

The points of difference between Coronavirus and Rhinovirus have been summarized as below:

COVID 19 Symptoms

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References :


[0]Falsey, A. R., Walsh, E. E., & Hayden, F. G. (2002). Rhinovirus and coronavirus infection-associated hospitalizations among older adults. The Journal of infectious diseases, 185(9), 1338-1341.

[1]Greenberg, S. B. (2003). Respiratory consequences of rhinovirus infection. Archives of internal medicine, 163(3), 278-284.

[2]Jacobs, S. E., Lamson, D. M., George, K. S., & Walsh, T. J. (2013). Human rhinoviruses. Clinical microbiology reviews, 26(1), 135-162.

[3]Image credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_Rhinovirus_bound_with_Pleconaril.png

[4]Image credit: https://pixabay.com/de/illustrations/corona-coronavirus-virus-pandemie-4893276/

[5]https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Symptoms_of_coronavirus_disease_2019_3.0.png

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