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Difference Between Psychosis and Neurosis

What is Psychosis?

The psychosis is a severe mental illness, characterized by a loss of contact with the reality and a deep disruption of the relationships with other people, which results in social disadaptation. The psychoses lead to declination of personality. Specifically distorted reflection of the effects of the reality. There is a change in the relation of  the patient and the surroundings due to the disease process.

The psychosis is a brain issue, the onset, and course of the disease is caused by genetic, biochemical and environmental factors (intoxications, physical trauma to the brain, psychotrauma, infection abd etc.). Psychosis is associated with certain pathomorphological and pathofunctional changes in the body. This issue changes the anatomical structure and functionalities of the neuro-cerebral substance.

The disorders affect perception and thinking, memory and imagination, feelings and will, affections and relationships and consciousness and personality. The person with psychosis does not know about his/her disorder and is isolated from the outside world, creating an own one.

Difference Between Psychosis and Neurosis

Types of psychoses are:

  • schizophrenia;
  • bipolar affective disorder;
  • delusions: paranoia, chronic hallucinatory psychosis, paraphrenia;
  • epilepsy;
  • senile or pre-senile dementia, etc.

Often there is a delusional activity which characteristic features are the lack of self-criticism, the presence of deviant judgments, thinking, which is contrary to reality and logic, deep mental alienation of the personality and leading to impossibility of social life.

The schizophrenia is the most significant psychiatric problem. The clinical picture is characterized by major fundamental deviations in thinking, perceptions and behavior.

Psychotics cannot manage themselves. They often tend to commit suicide and most of the time it requires need hospitalization or equivalent care at home.

What is Neurosis?

The neurosis is a purely functional mental disorder without organic reason, a group of “borderline” functional neuro-psychical disorders that manifest themselves in specific clinical phenomena in the absence of psychical phenomena.

The basis of neuroses is an internal conflict caused by an insoluble contradiction in the attitude of a person to the reality. Sources of such contradiction are found in the sphere of human relationships and conflicts, in the social space, and in the wrong upbringing.

More important features of the neuroses are the mental and physical disorganization, inadequate response and inability to properly react to different situations, emotional liability, constant internal tension and anxiety, agitation, discomfort, feeling of inadequacy, aggression, sleep disorders, sexual disorders.

Difference Between Psychosis and Neurosis-1

The neurotics are characterized by emotional infantilism or lack of affective maturity – reacting unconsciously in specific situations. The factors for the neurosis can be as follows:

  • biological-hereditary burden, prolonged somatic diseases;
  • socio-psychic climate;
  • psychological – psychological traumas, personality traits, emotional shock;
  • pedagogical – improper pedagogical leadership, conflicts between teachers and students, information overload and overworking of students;
  • socio-economic – social pressure, socio-economic difficulties, material disadvantages, etc.

Neuroses include neurasthenia, fearful neurosis, hysteria, neuroses of compulsive conditions /phobic disorders/. The differentiation is conditional, because neurosis in pure form rarely occurs. The treatment is mainly psychological in the form of moral and general social support, through psychotherapy, general reinforcing procedures, and medicines.

Neurotics can manage themselves and are rarely suicidal. Hospitalization is not necessary.

Difference Between Psychosis and Neurosis

1.      Definitions of Psychosis and Neurosis

Psychosis: The psychosis is a severe mental illness, characterized by a loss of contact with the reality and a deep disruption of the relationships with other people, causing social disadaptation.

Neurosis: The neurosis is a group of “borderline” functional neuro-psychical disorders that manifest themselves in specific clinical phenomena in the absence of psychical phenomena.

2.      Types of Psychosis and Neurosis

Psychosis: Types of psychoses are schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder; delusions: paranoia, chronic hallucinatory psychosis, paraphrenia; epilepsy; senile or pre-senile dementia, etc.

Neurosis: The neuroses include neurasthenia, fearful neurosis, hysteria, neuroses of compulsive conditions /phobic disorders/, etc.

3.      Personality Changes of Psychosis and Neurosis

Psychosis: The psychoses lead to the change of the personality.

Neurosis: The neuroses are purely functional diseases and do not affect the personality.

4.      Contact with Reality in Psychosis vs. Neurosis

Psychosis: The contact with reality is totally lost or changed.

Neurosis: The contact with reality is partially intact, though its value can be changed.

5.      Awareness of the Own Condition in Psychosis vs. Neurosis

Psychosis: The person with psychosis does not realize his/her disorder.

Neurosis: The person with neurosis is aware of his/her personal problems and difficulties.

6.      Language and Communication in Psychosis and Neurosis

Psychosis: The thought and speech processes are disorganized, incoherent, and irrational.

Neurosis: The neurosis does not affect language, communication, and thought processes

7.      Hallucination and Delusion in Psychosis and Neurosis

Psychosis: Hallucination and delusion are marked symptoms.

Neurosis: In general no delusion and hallucination occur.

8.      Organic Changes in of Psychosis and Neurosis

Psychosis: The psychoses are associated with certain pathomorphological and pathofunctional changes in the body, the disease changes the anatomical structure and functionalities of the neuro-cerebral substance.

Neurosis: The neurosis is a purely functional mental disorder without organic reason.

9.      Etiology of of Psychosis and Neurosis

Psychosis: The factors that can cause psychosis are genetic, biochemical, and environmental.

Neurosis: The factors that can cause neurosis are biological, socio-psychic climate, psychological, pedagogical, and socio-economic.

10.  General behavior in Psychosis and Neurosis

Psychosis: The psychotics cannot manage themselves. They often tend to suicide and need hospitalization or equivalent care at home.

Neurosis: The neurotics can manage themselves and are rarely suicidal. Hospitalization is not necessary.

11.  Treatment procedure in Psychosis and Neurosis

Psychosis: The treatment of psychosis includes antipsychotic medicines, psychological therapy, social support.

Neurosis: The treatment of neurosis is mainly psychological in the form of moral and social support, medicines can also be prescribed.

Difference Between Psychosis and Neurosis : Comparison Table 

Psychosis                               versus                        Neurosis
The psychosis is a severe mental illness, characterized by a loss of contact with the reality and a deep disruption of the relationships with other people, causing social disadaptation. The neurosis is a group of “borderline” functional neuro-psychical disorders that manifest themselves in specific clinical phenomena in the absence of psychical phenomena.
Leads to change of the personality. Does not affect the personality.
The contact with reality is totally lost or changed. The contact with reality is partially intact, though its value can be changed.
The person with psychosis does not realize his/her disorder. The person with neurosis is aware of his/her personal problems and difficulties.
The thought and speech processes are disorganized, incoherent, and irrational. Does not affect language, communication, and thought processes
Hallucination and delusion are marked symptoms. In general no delusion and hallucination occur.
Associated with certain pathomorphological and pathofunctional changes in the body. Purely functional mental disorder without organic reason.
Causing factors: genetic, biochemical, and environmental. Causing factors: biological, socio-psychic climate, psychological, pedagogical, and socio-economic.
The psychotics cannot manage themselves;  often tend to suicide and need hospitalization. The neurotics can manage themselves; rarely suicidal, hospitalization is not necessary.
Treatment: antipsychotic medicines, psychological therapy, social support. Treatment: mainly psychological;  medicines can also be prescribed.

Summary:

  • The psychosis is a severe mental illness, characterized by a loss of contact with the reality and a deep disruption of the relationships with other people, causing social disadaptation. The types of psychoses are: schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder; delusions: paranoia, chronic hallucinatory psychosis, paraphrenia; epilepsy; senile or pre-senile dementia, etc.
  • The neurosis is a purely functional mental disorder without organic reason, a group of “borderline” functional neuro-psychical disorders that manifest themselves in specific clinical phenomena in the absence of psychical phenomena. The neuroses include: neurasthenia, fearful neurosis, hysteria, neuroses of compulsive conditions /phobic disorders/, etc.
  • The psychoses lead to the change of the personality, while the neuroses are purely functional diseases and do not affect the personality.
  • The psychoses lead to the change or loss of a contact with reality. The neurotics have partially intact contact with reality, though its value can be changed.
  • The person with psychosis does not realize his/her disorder, while the person with neurosis is aware of his/her personal problems and difficulties.
  • The psychosis leads to distortion of language and communication; the thought and speech processes are disorganized, incoherent, and irrational. The neurosis does not affect language, communication, and thought processes.
  • Hallucination and delusion are marked symptoms of the psychoses, while in neuroses no delusion and hallucination generally occur.
  • The factors that can cause psychosis are genetic, biochemical, and environmental. The factors that can cause neurosis are biological, socio-psychic climate, psychological, pedagogical, and socio-economic.
  • Psychotics cannot manage themselves; they often tend to suicide and need hospitalization or equivalent care at home. Neurotics can manage themselves and are rarely suicidal. Hospitalization is not necessary.

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References :


[0]Geekie, J., P. Randal, D. Lampshire and J. Read (editors). Experiencing Psychosis: Personal and Professional Perspectives. London and New York: Routledge. 2012. Print.

[1]Horney, K. Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Towards Self-Realization. 1991. Print.

[2]Romme. M. and S. Escher. Psychosis as a Personal Crisis: An Experience-Based Approach. London and New York: Routledge. London and New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2011. Print.

[3]"Image Credit: https://saspdhealth.wikispaces.com/What+is+Schizophrenia%3F?responseToken=02d4ed07a52566861a0114ba76895e847"

[4]"Image Credit: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%22Room_of_recovery%22,_war_neurosis._Wellcome_L0023551.jpg"

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