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Difference Between Artificial Intelligence and Human Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) and human intelligence delve into cognitive functions such as memory, problem-solving, learning, planning, language, reasoning, and perception. Both of these have been playing monumental parts in improving societies.

Regarding their differences, AI is an innovation created by human intelligence and it is designed to do specific tasks much faster with less effort.

On the other hand, human intelligence is better at multi-tasking and it can incorporate emotional elements, human interaction, as well as self-awareness in the cognitive process. The following discussions further explore such distinctions.

 

What is Artificial Intelligence?

AI is also sometimes referred to as machine intelligence which was founded as an academic discipline in 1956 which is also the same year when the term “artificial intelligence” was coined by John McCarthy. A conglomeration of sciences such as philosophy, neuroscience, psychology, computer science, and economics is vital in AI research regarding mimicking how humans process information.

Hintze (2016) presents the following four types of AI:

  • Type I – Reactive Machines

This is the most basic type of AI since it is purely reactive and it does not consider past experiences.

  • Type II- Limited Memory

Unlike the reactive machines, type II incorporates past experiences in its function.

  • Type III-Theory of Mind

This type is said to be the “machines of the future” wherein they can understand human emotions and predict how others would think.

  • Type IV- Self-Awareness

As an extension of the theory of mind, AI researchers seek to develop machines which can also form representations of themselves.

 

What is Human Intelligence?

Human intelligence is characterized by highly complex cognitive processes such as concept-formation, understanding, decision-making, communication, and problem-solving. It is also markedly influenced by subjective factors such as motivation. Human intelligence is commonly measured through IQ tests which typically covers working memory, verbal comprehension, processing speed, and perceptual reasoning.

As intelligence has been defined and viewed in various ways, there have been pertinent theories. Here are some of them:

  • Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Robert Sternberg)

Intelligence is composed of analysis, creativity, and practicality.

  • Theory of Multiple Intelligence (Howard Gardner)

Each individual usually has a combination of intelligences such as verbal-linguistic, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, visual-spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Gardner suggested existential intelligence as also viable.

  • PASS Theory (A.R. Luria)

The four processes of intelligence are planning, attention, simultaneous, and successive.

 

Difference between Artificial Intelligence and Human Intelligence

  1. Origin of AI and Human Intelligence

AI is an innovation created by human intelligence; its early development is credited to Norbert Weiner who theorized on feedback mechanisms while the father of AI is John McCarthy for coining the term and organizing the first conference on research projects regarding machine intelligence. On the other hand, human beings are created with the innate ability to think, reason, recall, etc.

  1. Speed of AI and Human Intelligence

As compared to humans, computers can process more information at a faster rate. For instance, if the human mind can solve a math problem in 5 minutes, AI can solve 10 problems in a minute.

  1. Decision Making

AI is highly objective in decision making as it analyzes based on purely gathered data. However, humans’ decisions may be influenced by subjective elements which are not based on figures alone.

  1. Accuracy

AI often produces accurate results as it functions based on a set of programmed rules. As for human intelligence, there is usually a room for “human error” as certain details may be missed at one point or the other.

  1. Energy Used

The human brain uses about 25 watts while modern computers only generally use 2 watts.

  1. Adaptation  of AI and Human Intelligence

Human intelligence can be flexible in response to the changes to its environment. This makes people able to learn and master various skills. On the other hand, AI takes much more time to adapt to new changes.

  1. Multitasking

The human intellect supports multitasking as evidenced by diverse and simultaneous roles while AI can only perform fewer tasks at the same time as a system can only learn responsibilities one at a time.

  1. Self-Awareness

AI is still working on its ability regarding self-awareness while humans become naturally aware of themselves and strive to establish their identities as they mature.

  1. Social Interaction

As social beings, humans are much better at social interaction since they can process abstract information, have self-awareness, and are sensitive to others’ emotions. On the other hand, AI has not mastered the ability to pick up on pertinent social and emotional cues.

  1. General Function

The general function of human intelligence is innovation as it can create, collaborate, brainstorm, and implement. As for AI, its general function is more on optimization as it efficiently performs tasks according to how it is programmed.

Artificial Intelligence vs Human Intelligence

 

Summary of AI Vs. Human Intelligence

  • Artificial intelligence (AI) and human intelligence delve into cognitive functions such as memory, problem-solving, learning, planning, language, reasoning, and perception.
  • AI is also sometimes referred to as machine intelligence. It was founded as an academic discipline in 1956 which is also the same year when the term “artificial intelligence” was coined by John McCarthy.
  • The four types of AI are reactive machines, limited memory, theory of mind, and self-awareness.
  • Human intelligence is commonly measured through IQ tests which typically covers working memory, verbal comprehension, processing speed, and perceptual reasoning.
  • Some of the theories on human intelligence are multiple intelligence, triarchic, and PASS.
  • As compared to human intelligence, AI can process information faster using less energy.
  • AI is more objective and accurate than human intelligence.
  • Human intelligence is better at multitasking, adapting, social interaction and self-awareness than AI.
  • The general function of AI is optimization while that of human intelligence is innovation.

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References :


[0]Flynne, James. What is Intelligence? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print. 

[1]Hintze, Arend. “Understanding the Four Types of AI, from Reactive Robots to Self-Aware Beings”. The Conversation 14 Nov. 2016. Web. 10 Aug. 2018. 

[2]Muller, John and Massaron, Luca. Artificial Intelligence for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2018. Print. 

[3]Image credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/gleonhard/33661760430

[4]Image credit: https://www.maxpixel.net/Artificial-Intelligence-Technology-Futuristic-3262753

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